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The transfer of the List has been implemented in order to streamline the regulatory process for approving prospectuses and listing now centralised with the DFSA , for the benefit of issuers and investors and in compliance with international best practice. The Interim Listing Rules are less comprehensive than the Listing Rules, as the entire regime related to admission of securities to listing has been left out. The Interim Listing Rules set out the legal framework for the admittance of securities to trading on NASDAQ Dubai and the continuing obligations imposed on issuers of securities which are admitted.
The DFSA is now going to be in charge of the listing process, whereas the main function of NASDAQ Dubai has become supervision of the admittance to trading of securities on its market and monitoring of orderly trading. The DFSA has opened a public consultation period in respect of the provisions proposed under the Paper and will be accepting comments from the public till 15 November this year.
Numerous solutions proposed under the Markets Rules have been modeled on those currently in place in the United Kingdom, Hong Kong or Singapore. The DFSA were of the view that many expat professionals practising in the DIFC have experience in advising on transactions in those jurisdictions; therefore, it decided to respond to their expertise by referring to the principles and practices these professionals are already familiar with.
The most essential changes to the listing regime that have been proposed under the Market Rules are:. Whereas listing principles had no participation under the provisions regime, the Markets Rules, under Chapter 9, set out five listing principles, i.
In line with the legal approach adopted under EU legislation, under the Markets Rules the DFSA has proposed that at least 25 per cent of the securities that are to be admitted to listing on NASDAQ are in public hands, which shares do not include those held, directly or indirectly, by:. The listed entity is required to adhere to that requirement at all times, i. The DFSA may, however, in exceptional circumstances, accept a percentage lower the 25 per cent if it considers than the market will operate properly, with a lower percentage in view of additional factors, e.
Under the Market Rules, the issuer is obliged to comfort the DFSA that it and any of its subsidiaries have sufficient working capital available for its present requirements or, if not, how it proposes to provide the additional working capital needed.
The issuer must also confirm in the prospectus that it is going to meet the capital adequacy requirement for the period of at least 12 months after prospectus admission. This is the price that controls world oil market price. West Texas Intermediate is used primarily in the U. It is light API gravity and sweet low-sulfur thus making it ideal for producing products like low-sulfur gasoline and low-sulfur diesel.
Brent is not as light or as sweet as WTI but it is still a high-grade crude. As a result of these gravity and sulfur differences, before WTI typically traded at a dollar or two premium to Brent and another dollar or two premium to the OPEC basket. Brent Crude is a mix of crude oil from 15 different oil fields in the North Sea. It is the benchmark used primarily in Europe though it is also mixed in with the OPEC reference basket which is used around the world.
Dubai Crude , also known as Fateh, is a heavy sour crude oil extracted from Dubai. For many years it was the only freely traded oil in the Middle East, but gradually a spot market has developed in Omani crude as well. For many years, most of the oil producers in the Middle East have taken the monthly spot price average of Dubai and Oman as the benchmark for sales to the Far East WTI and Brent futures prices are used for exports to the Atlantic Basin. In July , a potential new mechanism arose in the form of the Dubai Mercantile Exchange , which offers futures contracts in Omani crude.
Whether the DME will be successful, and whether Omani futures prices will be adopted by producers and buyers as a benchmark, remain to be seen. Because of its excellent liquidity and price transparency, the contract is used as a principal international pricing benchmark.
The first futures contracts on crude oil were traded in , with the Chicago Board of Trade CBOT and the New York Mercantile Exchange Nymex both attempting to take advantage of the government's de-regulation of crude oil.